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2 Giugno: viva la Repubblica e le sue donne

2 Giugno: in Italia è un’importante festa nazionale, il compleanno della Repubblica che quest’anno fa cifra tonda e compie 70 anni.
Il 2 Giugno 1946 si svolse, infatti, il referendum in cui i cittadini furono chiamati a scegliere la forma istituzionale dello Stato. Questa ricorrenza è fondamentale anche per un altro motivo, perché fu la prima volta in cui poterono esercitare il diritto di voto le donne.
Non mi dilungo in ulteriori commenti storico politici, perché in questi giorni ne potete trovare a iosa alla radio, sui giornali, in televisione. Voglio, invece, informarvi su alcune iniziative legate alla data.




Dal 1 Giugno col Corriere della Sera esce un libro, “2 Giugno 1946 La battaglia per la repubblica”, di Dino Messina, da anni giornalista del quotidiano milanese. L’autore spiega come si arrivò al referendum mettendo in luce le intese nascoste, i protagonisti principali, la situazione a livello internazionale e i contrasti dei giorni pre e post voto.
Il volume costa 7,90€ e sarà disponibile anche in versione e-book.

libro corriere

Anche La Stampa celebra la Festa della Repubblica con un’iniziativa editoriale: dal 2 al 23 di questo mese, infatti, sarà in edicola il libro “1946 Dai Savoia alla Repubblica”. Con le eccezionali immagini dell’ANSA, viene proposto il reportage di quei mesi, ripercorrendo il clima e gli avvenimenti, così importanti per la nostra storia, che li caratterizzarono.
Il prezzo del volume è 9,90 €.

libro la stampa




Come ho ricordato, in questa data si ricorda anche la prima volta delle donne alle urne e su questo importante cambiamento della politica e società italiana si trova nelle librerie “Donne della Repubblica”, casa editrice il Mulino. Questo libro è stato scritto a più mani, da giornaliste e scrittrici che fanno parte dell’associazione “Controparola”, nata nel 1992 per volontà di Dacia Maraini che firma l’introduzione. Lo scopo del volume è evidenziare una presenza, quella femminile, troppo a lungo trascurata, ma fondamentale nella nascita della Repubblica. In particolare, sono tratteggiate le biografie di donne che, nell’immediato secondo dopoguerra, hanno dedicato la loro vita per assicurare alle generazioni future la libertà , la democrazia e i diritti fondamentali in vari settori della società, modificando radicalmente l’immagine della donna.

libro donne

Per rimarcare l’importanza dell’evento, oggi sarà inaugurata dal Presidente della Repubblica la mostra “1946, l’anno della svolta. Le donne al voto”, voluta fortemente dalla Presidente della Camera, Laura Boldrini che ha spiegato che l’idea è nata “per ricordare come il primo voto delle donne in Italia, il 2 Giugno 1946, sia stato il frutto di una lunga lotta per quel diritto, cominciata con l’Unità d’Italia e sfociata nell’impegno delle italiane nella Resistenza contro una dittatura che le aveva confinate al ruolo di madri e mogli.” La presidente ha sottolineato, inoltre, che “è bene che le donne di oggi capiscano quanto sia importante non fermarsi ma partecipare, impegnarsi, smetterla di delegare, prendere completamente in mano la propria vita”.
La mostra è stata allestita nella restaurata Sala della Lupa e contiene molti documenti importanti, in particolare il testo del primo disegno di legge presentato in un Parlamento italiano ed europeo sulla parità dei diritti alle donne. L’autore del disegno di legge, l’onorevole Salvatore Morelli, fu, purtroppo, oggetto di feroci ironie. Presente anche lo scambio di lettere tra De Gasperi e Togliatti che portò all’inserimento delle donne nelle liste elettorali.

Laura Boldrini è protagonista di un’altra iniziativa: a metà giugno, infatti, inaugurerà la prima sala dedicata alle donne nelle istituzioni. Alla Camera dei Deputati, e precisamente nella sala che precede quella della Regina, si potranno ammirare i ritratti delle ventuno donne presenti nell’Assemblea Costituente, la prima Presidente della Camera, la prima donna ministro e così via… Si tratta, per Boldrini, di “un doveroso riequilibrio a Montecitorio, dove le aule sono state dedicate fino ad oggi solo a uomini politici.

Anche in tv ci sono programmi che parlano di questa fondamentale ricorrenza: è il caso, per esempio, di “Le ragazze del 1946”, in onda su Rai Tre alle 20:10 dal 30 maggio al 3 giugno. Dieci testimoni di quell’epoca raccontano com’era la loro vita, spiegano le loro idee politiche e gli effetti di quel cambiamento sulla loro vita pubblica. Tra queste dieci, Marisa Rodano, prima donna a esser eletta vice Presidente della Camera, che rammenta: “Molte italiane nel segreto dell’urna tradirono i mariti, favorevoli alla monarchia, e scelsero la repubblica”. Proprio queste ragazze, testimoni e artefici dell’importante cambiamento, sono state ricevute alla Camera il 30 maggio dalla Presidente Laura Boldrini.

Inoltre, domenica 29 Maggio lo Speciale TG1, rubrica settimanale in onda in seconda serata, è stato dedicato ai 70 anni della Repubblica, ripercorrendo gli eventi più importanti. Per chi fosse interessato, lo può trovare sul sito del TG1.




Perché non rendere più personale il ricordo e la partecipazione a questa festa?
Se avete nonne, zie… vicine di casa che abbiano vissuto quell’esperienza, fatevi raccontare qualcosa: possono uscire delle curiosità molto interessanti!
Se abitate, poi, in piccoli centri, fatevi venire la curiosità di sapere come si votò nel vostro paese. (Dico paese, perché penso che ciò che ora vi proporrò risulti più semplice da realizzare e, comunque, non lo troverete mai di certo sui giornali).
Ogni Comune possiede un archivio, dal quale si possono attingere appunto anche i dati relativi al referendum del 2 Giugno 1946; magari, quest’anno sarà organizzata una mostra locale che metterà in evidenza questi numeri, ma in caso contrario potrete, con un minimo impegno, soddisfare la vostra legittima curiosità.
Nel mio paese, ad esempio, votarono 2319 elettori e elettrici (come è scritto nel documento comunale consultato). La Repubblica ottenne 1251 preferenze, pari al 53,0% e la monarchia 705, cioè il 30,4%. Le schede bianche o nulle furono 363, pari al 15,6%. Non male per un piccolo paese della pianura padana a vocazione prettamente agricola e con una popolazione molto legata alla Chiesa e alle tradizioni… Posso dirmi orgoglioso dei miei concittadini di allora.

Vi lascio suggerendovi l’ascolto, se vi va, di due canzoni dedicate alla nostra Italia. La prima è “Viva l’Italia”, famosissimo successo di De Gregori che l’anno scorso l’ha riproposto insieme a Ligabue in occasione del 25 Aprile.

Il secondo brano è “Buonanotte all’Italia”, testo un po’ malinconico che il rocker di Correggio propone nei suoi concerti proiettando sul maxischermo le immagini dei momenti e delle personalità più importanti del nostro Paese.

BUON COMPLEANNO,REPUBBLICA ITALIANA!

208 pensieri su “2 Giugno: viva la Repubblica e le sue donne

  1. Ciao Paolo! Grazie a te, ancora una volta mi documento nell’importanza della nostra storia! Altrimenti non leggendo i giornali…. mi dimentico le cose passate importanti, che fanno la nostra storia! Ciao e buona giornata!

  2. Grazie per il bell’articolo che ricorda i fondamentali della nostra Repubblica. Ottima idea ed anch’io mi documentero’! Buona giornata ciao Paolo

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